Based on the overview of the Ukrainian energy sector functioning conditions, major internally and externally caused problems become understandable, those jeopardizing provisioning of the reliable power supply in Ukraine in the future and the energy security in general. Consideration of mentioned hazards has to be reflected in the national energy security restructuring lines and in creating the governmental management system related to the Ukrainian energy security sphere.
Based on major national energy-related interests, vital problems of the national energy sector, the following is considered as major internal threats for the reliable operation of the energy sector and the energy security of Ukraine:
- considerable moral and physical obsolesce of fixed assets of the Ukrainian fuel and energy park, as well as their slow upgrade;
- unsatisfactory financial situation and low investments into the fuel and energy sector, its modernization and rehabilitation, as well as absence of sufficient incentives for investing into the power sector;
- low efficiency of the current system stimulating the Ukraine's energy self-sufficiency, and of the renewable energy industry in particular;
- absence of an effective system to manage strategic stock of energy resources;
- low efficiency of using energy resources and extremely high energy consumption of the economy in general;
- inefficient and slow introduction of governmental policies related to energy preservation and enhancing the energy efficiency; population incompetence related to the energy-saving issue (especially of those consumers, whose energy consumption is subsidized), as well as governmental activities related to generating these; the imbalance in financing the energy saving programs and subsidizing the households' expenditures for energy supplies;
- high level of the population's fuel poverty and uncompetitive high prices of energy resources for business entities;
- insufficient transparency (including unpredictability in activities of certain authorities) in the branches of resources' extraction, supply and reprocessing; criminal and corrupt practices within the energy sector;
- inefficiency of the governmental management system of the country's energy branch; imperfection of the governmental tax and tariff policies in the energy field;
- absence of a single mechanism for coordinating activities aimed at reinforcing the energy independence and safety; absence of the required methodological and regulatory support to the energy independence and security;
- absence of a consolidated development strategy for the national energy industry;
- threats of terroristic acts, cyber-attacks, sabotages and other types of subversive activities directed against the energy generating facilities and energy infrastructure, and especially the nuclear industry facilities, as well as improper current protection level of such facilities;
- loss of the research and development potential and low innovative activity within the energy industry;
- high levels of the market concentration in the sphere of energy resources and energy use production, reprocessing and distribution;
- conflict of interests between the private owners of fuel and energy park facilities and separate aspects of guaranteeing the energy and economical security of Ukraine;
- threat to loosing control and assure the full-scale governmental regulation of separate strategically important facilities of the energy sector, which provide for the extraction and transportation of energy resources, accumulating and management of their strategic reserves.
Major external threats to the energy security of Ukraine are:
- high energy dependence of Ukraine on external energy resources' suppliers and insufficient diversification level of their supply sources, and in this context – discriminative nature in actions of separate suppliers of external energy sources;
- threat of irregular supplies and interruptions in supplies of energy resources from abroad;
- external information attacks aimed at undermining the country's image of a reliable transit partner and in relation to maintaining the safety standards on the power industry facilities, first of all on nuclear facilities;
- probability of deteriorating relations with partner countries in the energy industry sphere, threat of loosing the status of a critically important transit country of energy resources (of not only gas) and decrease of the interdependence level between Ukraine and the EU related to the energy potential;
- absence of the single country's external policy in the energy supply sphere, which would meet the actual requirements of the energy security and would be agreed with major subjects of the energy security arrangements.