Application of the authorities' impact instruments with the goal of extending and securing sales markets for national companies-exporters of energy resources is quite widespread and is not a newly introduced practice. It has been extensively used in the first half of previous century to promote the USA oil extraction companies' interests worldwide, and is currently still actively exercised by some countries, in particular the Russian Federation. However, over the recent years the developed countries are extensively providing mechanisms of comprehensive coordination related to authorities' activities with the goal of harmonizing the internal domestic and foreign policies focused on achieving major goals of securing the domestic power supply reliability and protecting own energy-related foreign interests. This is not only due to the current importance of energy industry within the international relations scheme, but also due to the dynamic growing character of international markets, as well as growing number of active international players in the energy sphere. In the frameworks of national policies of the energy diplomacy, the states are selecting priority partners at their own discretion: separate countries, international organizations and unions, as well as methods of implementing this policy. Countries aiming at being global or regional players in the sphere of intergovernmental energy relations are developing a corresponding long-term policies and creating corresponding institutional structures, and the following three groups of intentions can serve as basic motifs of such activities:
- to guarantee reliability and uninterrupted supply in case of energy-dependent countries;
- to provide the long-term availability of sales markets for countries exporting energy resources;
- to benefit from using energy levers in exercising own foreign energy policy for both the energy resources' net-importers and exporters.
Amongst developed countries, the practice of legal regulation of energy security related aspects is becoming widespread, this just confirming significance and increasing importance of such tasks in the modern context. As an example, the Canadian Energy Safety and Security Act
is governing only aspects of securing reliability and safety of the energy infrastructure facilities, the environmental damage compensatory mechanisms. And this is not strange, as the country is the net-exporter of energy carriers, and the energy independence issue is irrelevant. In the European Union countries, a separate group of issues related to reliable and efficient energy supplies are governed by series of directives and regulations, which are currently composing a so-called third energy package. Corresponding acts are to be mandatory implemented by all EU members striving to create a unified energy market and being members of the European Energy and Climatic Union, which has been legally founded in 2015. The Third energy package has been aimed at liberalization and supporting competitiveness of energy markets and has envisaged unbundling of companies involved in generation, transfer, transmission and sale of energy resources and energy, and has determined the rules of energy markets functioning. To replace the currently applicable third package, a fourth energy package is currently under development, which is aimed at creating a united reliable energy market within the EU, at further decentralization of energy generation and at further balancing its space disproportions by means of particularly wide involvement of households into the energy generation market (which would finally contribute to enhancing physical reliability of energy supplies), as well as further stimulating the de-carbonization of the energy industry.
In 2011, the Energy Resources Bureau has been created within the U.S. State Department (U.S. foreign policy establishment), headed by the Special Envoy and Coordinator on international energy relations. Major task of the Bureau is to combine efforts of different subjects and institutions to achieve the goal in the energy generation and consumption spheres, and the authority head is practically acting as the major energy diplomat of the country. Implementation of the energy diplomacy policy, in particular for the purpose of energy security, has been enacted in the USA by the Energy Independence and Security Act in 2007. According to this document, implementation of this USA policy has to be performed with the goal of elaborating the national foreign energy policy, which among other things has to take into account global changes of energy infrastructure, has to provide for incorporating the energy security interests into the country's foreign political activities and coordinate the energy security activities with other authorities involved in these issues. It has to be noted that elaboration and implementation of the USA energy independence policy along the past half-century has was quite sluggish and unsystematic (except for attempts of President J. Carter's administration, whose initiatives have been mostly scaled down by following presidential administrations, starting from Nixon) and the fact of including the energy diplomacy issue into the energy security policy agenda for this country is really speaks for critical importance of this aspect for international relations and the energy security.
Special role of the energy (as the generally resource-related) diplomacy exists in the great but resource-poor Japan. Major priority of Japan in this sphere is the development of a collaboration system to avoid critical situations in energy supplies, establishing and maintaining close relationships with the Middle East countries, as well as with other energy-carriers' exporters, the commodities' and geographic diversification in supply of energy resources, increase of efficiency level of energy utilization and prevention of climate change.
China is the largest energy consumer worldwide and is paying considerable attention to diplomatic strategies oriented at guaranteeing supply of energy resources: extremely high importance of energy interests can clearly be traced in the general vector of diplomatic activities of this country, which is thriving to build up close relations with resource-rich countries despite of the general geopolitical climate related thereto, and the country's energy diplomacy is tougher compared to the soft nature of the general diplomatic policy. For example, the PRC has not supported sanctions against Iran and has for a long period collaborated with this country in the military area, supporting barter operations in exchange to the possibility of importing energy resources, as well as tried to ease sanctions. Thus, China continued the diplomatic, economic or military collaboration with other exporters of energy resources, which have been isolated by other great states during different periods: Iraq, Kuwait, Myanmar. Moreover, the country's government is supporting in every possible way introduction and operation of oil extracting companies in other regions worldwide.
Summarizing, we shall note that the practice of formalizing and sometimes institutionalizing the governmental policy related to provisioning reliability of energy supplies and guaranteeing the general energy security is becoming more widespread in the developed countries, as well as possibilities of using the energy resources' supply instrument to influence other countries' policies. Such policy includes often the comprehensive coordination of activities of different subjects, who are directly or indirectly involved into implementing tasks in spheres specified.
However, expansion and implementation intensity of currently actual energy industry development trends differ also geographically, as far as economical inability and socio-political unpreparedness of separate countries is often a barrier for transfer of up-to-date energy technologies and solutions, application of progressive changes in the energy industry. Thus, Ukraine particularly over the period of its independence has demonstrated insufficient speed of implementing the current progressive changes in its national energy sector. Ukraine still lacks a unified and systematic vision of the energy industry's future and of the corresponding energy mix structure, and approaches to organizing power supply and energy security could fairly be defined as obsolete.